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    瞧這網 » 創業頻道 » 創業資訊 » 正文

    張瑞敏重塑海爾:只有創業沒有守業

    創業資訊 - 創業指南 - 創業政策 - 投資理財 - 連鎖加盟 - 創業計劃書

      1993年11月,青島海爾登陸A股市場,當年發行5000萬股,每股發行價7.38元,募資3.69億元,之后又經過了多輪的配股和增發。
      而在25年后,2018年10月青島海爾成為了第一家登陸德國法蘭克福證券交易所D股的中國企業。此次共發售股票3.0475億股,定價每股1.05歐元,超額配股權全部行使的時候,其募集資金將達4174萬歐元(約人民幣3.32億元)。與此同時,青島海爾又以38.05億人民幣的價格將1945年成立的意大利家電企業Candy(卡迪)收至麾下。
      從日本的三洋集團到新西蘭的斐雪派克,再到美國的通用家電(GEA)及意大利家電企業Candy,對青島海爾來說,頻繁的并購是為了加速其全球化業務的布局。從1998年開始,青島海爾就不止一次提出國際化、全球化的發展戰略,但在海爾集團董事局主席兼首席執行官張瑞敏看來,國際化和全球化是兩個概念,全球化必須實現本地制造、本地研發、本地銷售的三位一體,而歐洲是海爾實現全球化最重要的市場。
      自2001年加入世界貿易組織(WTO)以來,中國就不斷深化外貿體制改革,推動民營企業“走出去”,并以對外投資帶動國內設備、材料及勞務等出口,繼而實現出口方式的多元化。那時張瑞敏就覺得海爾遲早都要走出去,那還不如早一點,對海爾來說時機也很重要。
      沒有改革開放就沒有海爾
      1984年,在改革開放這部史書里,注定是一個重要的年份。時任改革開放總設計師的鄧小平第一次南巡,視察了深圳、珠海兩個經濟特區。他認為,建立經濟特區,實行開放政策,有個指導思想要明確,不是收而是放。特區是個窗口,是技術、管理、知識及對外開放的窗口。
      對于這個剛剛開始改革開放的國家來說,一切都是嶄新的。吳曉波在《激蕩三十年》里把1984年稱之為“躁動而熱烈的年份”,所有人都在摸著石頭過河,但中國商界已經開始呈現一片“野蠻生長”的景象。1984年也成為中國商業史上具有節點意義的一年。
      40歲的柳傳志懷揣中科院投資的20萬元人民幣,在北京的一處傳達室開始創業;王石在深圳成立了一家做內地企業及港口中間商生意的公司;同年,張瑞敏臨危受命,接手了資不抵債的青島電冰箱總廠。當時的張瑞敏剛在德國簽訂了引進技術設備協議,預計1985年5月引進設備,可誰知青島電冰箱總廠已經連工資都開不出來,還欠了一堆外債。張瑞敏回憶稱,引進設備要花200多萬美元,當時折合人民幣約1000多萬,對于當時的工廠而言也是個天文數字。“但當時家電產品的市場擁有率太低,由于質量問題,市場上的冰箱洗衣機都不是很暢銷,引進設備的話,海爾努力一下還是有可能成功的。”張瑞敏說。
      可以說,海爾的33年見證了市場屬性的回歸和政府職能的轉變。改革開放四十年,卻依然活躍在一線陣營的公司則少之又少。而

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